This is an intensive struggle whether to adhere to the direction of market-oriented reforms, to break the high monopoly of the power industry, or to fair market competition. In order to maintain the decision-making authority of the central government, the unimpeded state policies, and the fundamental rights and interests of asset owners at all levels, we must unswervingly promote the reform of the power system. The key to the current reform is the separation of transmission and distribution.
On February 10, 2002, Document No. 5 of the State Council  5 issued the "Notice on the Reform Scheme of the Electric Power System". After hard work in the past ten years, the reform has achieved initial results, but the distribution and distribution have stagnated. Some grid companies ignore the regulations of Guofa  No. 5 and Guoban Fa  No. 19, the monopoly has intensified, and the future of market-oriented reform is very slim. Therefore, the author believes that this is a sharp struggle whether to adhere to the direction of market-oriented reforms, whether to break the high monopoly of the power industry, or whether to compete fairly in the market. In order to maintain the decision-making authority of the central government, the unimpeded state policies, and the fundamental rights and interests of asset owners at all levels, we must unswervingly promote the reform of the power system. The key to the current reform is the separation of transmission and distribution. The following recommendations are made:
I. Separation of distribution and distribution of power should be re-divided
State grid companies should be in charge of power transmission, mainly responsible for power transmission and transformation business above 220 kV. Except for some cities and counties approved by the local government, they cannot directly operate county-level power distribution enterprises. Local county-level power distribution companies are mainly responsible for 220 kV For power distribution business at or below the level, self-supplied, self-supplied, and self-used places where power is available are self-sufficient. Electricity is inadequate. Purchase power from the State Grid and send surplus power to the State Grid for unified deployment. Where there is no power source, implement State Grid 从Sale to supply. This system has been in operation for nearly half a century in the last century, and it is conducive to mobilizing the enthusiasm of local governments for electricity at all levels, accelerating the development of electricity, and basically adapting to and meeting the needs of social and economic development.
Since the beginning of this century, State Grid enterprises have managed, planned, owned, and merged local city and county power distribution enterprises through the Internet access rights, offline access rights, dispatching rights, assessment rights, and power price suggestion rights (five rights). In view of the continuous development of the economy, especially the rise of large industries, the demand for electricity continues to increase. Where conditions permit, counties and counties urgently need networked operation. A regional grid with prefecture-level cities as the basic unit should be established in order to provide power to counties and cities. The county of power supply is complementary in power and adjusts the season to ensure the reliability of power supply. If the original one-county-one-company model is still used, only the county-level power distribution enterprises and the State Grid are allowed to be connected to the grid at one point, and the power distribution network operating with 110 kV (some are only 3.5 kV) as the main grid is completely lagging behind. Local socio-economic development. Nowadays, there are three mismatches: the large transmission grid and the small distribution grid do not match, the inland grid does not match the border grid, and the urban grid does not match the rural grid. To this end, it is recommended to re-divide the power of operation of the power grid:
First, national power transmission companies should take into account the vast territory, large regional differences, and special and complex situations. The four transmission groups in the east, south, west, and north can be set up in partitions, which is conducive to the rapid rise of the east, the revitalization of the central economy, and the key development of the west. To achieve the unity of personality and overall.
Second, the State Power Transmission Corporation is responsible for the operation of transmission and substation networks of 500 kV and above, and concentrated financial resources to build a high-level national backbone power grid to ensure its leading role in power generation. The city (state) unit is used to form a local power distribution group, which is mainly responsible for the operation of distribution substation networks of 220 kV and below, which is convenient for the establishment of a regional power distribution network with a main frame of 220 kV, to achieve inter-county networking, and adjust the remaining gaps.
Third, the transmission group should allow the power distribution group to connect to the 500 kV substation of the State Grid at multiple points, and the remaining power to go online to provide services; the local power distribution group should actively connect with the national large network, go online with the remaining power, and go offline without power. Obey the schedule. Both sides should treat each other as equals, reconcile surplus and deficiency, ensure quality, and secure power supply, so as to give full play to the central and local enthusiasm.
Second, the separation of transmission and distribution, asset ownership should be confirmed by classification
In accordance with the State's "Property Law", "Company Law" and the relevant provisions of the central government on the determination of the ownership of rural power grid assets, the asset ownership of state-owned power enterprises should be confirmed in accordance with the law through asset verification, financial auditing, and central, provincial (city), and municipal Assets formed by (county) and other shareholders must clarify property rights, determine ownership, conduct business registration, and protect property rights at all levels from infringement according to law, which is conducive to mobilizing the enthusiasm of all parties and investing in power infrastructure construction.
It is recommended to carry out a capital verification of power companies across the country, and clarify the ownership of assets in power companies at all levels according to law, the central to the central, the provincial to the provincial, and the city (state) to the city (state). The county level belongs to the county level, and other shareholders belong to other shareholders. The river water does not violate the well water, in order to facilitate openness, fairness, fairness, and determination of power, mobilize the enthusiasm of the central and local levels, and eliminate fighting, legal disputes and social unrest for property rights disputes. Stability factors.
3. Separate transmission and distribution, neutral power dispatching should be implemented
In the 1980s, there were still more than 1,000 power distribution companies nationwide under the management of local power departments. According to incomplete statistics, there are only more than 100 currently (including 64 in Shaanxi, 37 in Guangxi, 28 in Sichuan, and 4 in Jilin). State Grid Corporation's direct control of power dispatching power is one of the important reasons why the "Electric Power System Reform Plan" requires separate transmission and distribution and it is difficult to implement competitive power supply reforms. In fact, there are related transactions in power dispatching. Since State Grid companies are both power transmission providers, dispatchers, and distributors, individual State Grid companies also play the role of power generators and large electrical equipment manufacturers. In addition, they also control most of the power distribution companies. , Deployment, distribution and sales integration.
For this reason, we strongly call for the implementation of neutrality in dispatching, which neither dispatches dispatching power to power transmission enterprises nor to power distribution enterprises, but separates it from the State Grid Corporation of China and gives it to the directors of energy bureaus or SERC at all levels. The dispatching agency should not be connected with personnel affairs and interests of power grid enterprises, and it should be a non-profit organization. Otherwise, it will not be possible to achieve fair, just, and open dispatching. This is also a problem that needs to be solved to deepen the reform of the power system.
Fourth, the separation of transmission and distribution should accelerate the reform of the rural electricity system
The separation of transmission and distribution should accelerate the reform of the rural power system. The first proposal is to increase the proportion of capital and increase the development of power sources in the poor areas of old, young, and poor. These places are also rich in resources. The state has to allocate special funds to increase the capital ratio to 50%, because they cannot afford to give loans.
The second is to allow resources to invest in shares and to give a certain amount of electricity to the land where the resources are transferred (that is, the amount of electricity retained by the locality). If enterprises are allowed to develop loans, resources should be compensated to allow them to use resources to invest in shares, and the proportion of shares should be 8-10% of the total investment in the installed power station.
The third is to vigorously promote the renovation and transformation of rural power grids. It is advisable for the central government to increase the proportion of national debt capital to the old, young, poor and poor areas to 50%, and the rest should be financed by provincial electric power companies for construction and upgrading, while improving technical standards to prevent earthquakes and freezing disasters.
The fourth is to continue to extend the two-pen repayment policy. The loan repayment period is used to repay the loan. After the loan is repaid, it will be used to compensate the residents of the old, young, poor and poor areas. The time will be extended by another 1020, and the electricity compensation fund will be used to directly supply electricity to the people.
Fifth, return the pricing power to the government. Pricing by government price departments at all levels is based on actual pricing, eliminating all kinds of interference from power monopolies, and achieving open and transparent electricity prices. At the same time, vigorously promote the reform of the rural power system, the State Grid Corporation specializes in power transmission, shares concerns for the construction of the national backbone network, withdraws from power distribution, and allows local power departments to undertake power supply services.
Fifth, the separation of power transmission and distribution should strengthen the scientific and technological research on power construction.
Regardless of power generation, transmission, transformation, and distribution are all traditional mature technologies, but the history has developed to this day and has entered the era of network information. It is necessary to vigorously organize scientific and technological research and widely promote the use of remote control in various fields of power generation, transmission, and distribution Video, remote signaling, telemetry, remote adjustment, remote control technology. Make electric power scientific dispatching, voltage more stable, reliable power supply quality, reasonable and safe power consumption, and march toward smart power.